Bigotry in Othello and An Echo in the Bone
!.?.!? Every emancipation is a repair of the human world and of human relationships to man himself. MARX, Zur Judenfrage (1844) It has frequently been misinterpreted that racism just exists between those who are black and white. This naturally, has mostly been affected by manifest destiny and slavery in the New World.
Carlos Hoyt Jr in his short article, ‘The Pedagogy of the Significance of Racism: Reconciling a Discordant Discourse,’ states that although several essential ideas in the study of variety, social bias, and social justice are rather nebulous and overlapping, for instance, culture, race and ethnic background, there is possibly no term that provokes the level of confusions, consternation and dispute that the term bigotry does.
This he says is because of the conflict that has destabilized making use of the term for much of its short history and come down to a sharp argument among both experts and laypeople about whether the original definition of racism ought to be modified to specifically and strictly mean using power to preserve and perpetuate the advantages of the dominant social identity group– that is, white people in American society. Hoyt, 2012) Nevertheless a working meaning is provided by Wikipedia, in which racism is specified as actions, practices or beliefs, or social or political systems that are based in views that see the human species to be divided into races with shared qualities, abilities, or qualities, such as personality, intelligence, morality, or other cultural behavioral attributes, and specifically the belief that races can be ranked as naturally remarkable or inferior to others, or that members of various races ought to be dealt with differently.
Racism may exist in between those of Indian descent and African descent like Trinidad, in between Caucasians and Latinos in South America, in between Chinese and Japanese, Muslims and Christians in the Middle East and similarly in between Jews and Christians and so on. It is not unusual for writers whether contemporary or standard to discuss racism in their work.
In the post, ‘Literature as a Method of Fighting against Bigotry and Discrimination,’ the author, Koutsi, specifies that as countries struggle to deal with their internal disputes literature ends up being the lorry which helps us to open up to various point of views and reassess certain realities about the history of a country. She discusses that readers have the chance to revisit and question historic facts and question their own reality. Koutsi, nd) Arguing in assistance of this perspective is John Thieme in his article, ‘Repossessing the Servant Past: Caribbean Histography And Dennis Scott’s An Echo In The Bone,’ he prices estimate Scott, who had received awards at the Jamaica celebration literary competitions in the 1960s, revealing the view that when an ex-slave society “imposes discipline on itself from within, it starts to eliminate a custom of submission. …] it is the start of a freedom to pick” and the specific option that he made in An Echo in The Bone was to renegotiate the regards to Jamaican historiography, by restaging episodes from the past within the context of Afro- Caribbean rite of the Nine Night. Like wakes in lots of other cultures, the Nine Night is a type that goes beyond the mourning aspects of funeral customs to commemorate and release the dead individual’s spirit. Thieme, nd) The problem of race is a central theme in An Echo in the Bone and it explores the displeasure shared in between both blacks and whites generating from the latter working out dominance in the kind of goods slavery over the other. This bitterness is best portrayed in the conflict between Team and Mr. Charles and their deaths. This confrontation, shows the height and depth of racism within the new world, more specifically in Jamaica at that time.
The play is based on the postcolonial age in Jamaica where ones status is ascribed based on colour. The class system held the whites at the top of the hierarchy with the mullatoes, a type of hybrid arising from the intimate relations held by black and white descendants, then lastly the Africans. Racism hummed within the veins of the oppressed and the oppressors alike and blanketed the atmosphere within that era and in the play also.
Through the nine night routine and a series of belongings and flashback methods, Scott further shows the atrocities of slavery and bigotry and the terrible results it has actually on the oppressed even after emancipation. This triggers one to question the real meaning of emancipation. Even after fifty 2 years of independence Jamaica and the Caribbean society has yet to free themselves from slavery and bigotry. Though we are not shackled and bound by chains, evidence of this trauma is still rooted deep within our minds.
From skin lightening to the idea that foreign is much better and the ‘crab inna barrel mindset’ displayed by the bulk of Jamaicans it is obvious that the flexibility combated by our fore daddies to get failed. Like Marcus Garvey who pleaded with us to emancipate ourselves from mental slavery, Bob Marley who sang songs of redemption, King who had imagine a better tomorrow, Malcom X who fought for equality and Mandela who sustained embarrassment behind bars combating against the apartheid system in Africa, Scott in his play seeks to provide a voice to the disenfranchised.
By including the 9 night ritual the playwright places focus on ownership, this he shows through the flashback scenes and the spiritual ownership of the characters by the deceased. According to Thieme, as in the work of Caribbean authors such as Kamau Brathwaite and Earna Brodber, his emphasis on “belongings” involves more than one meaning of the word. To be had is to be taken over by the creolized African elements in Caribbean culture and to claim ownership of one’s history, land and language and most importantly one’s “birthright that say I am not a slave anymore”. Thieme, nd) Hence as a car of foreclosure Scott utilizes the drum as a website to the past; the chain discovered on set is the link through which the characters are able to climb through history and it also represents the impact the past has on the present and how it will affect the future. Drama as a medium allows the past to be imaginatively reenacted, so that scenes from the culturally encoded discourse of colonial historiography are offered a totally various inflection. (Thieme, nd) This is finest portrayed where Scott enables Sonson to reenact his dad’s confrontation with Mr.
Charles. Had by the spirit of his dad, Sonson goes up the chain that has actually been suspended over the set throughout the play, as it were climbing up back through slave history, and hovers above the phase in a limbo like circumstance. Jacko in encouraging Sonson/Crew that his talk of having actually murdered Mr. Charles is “stupidness” “(Echo 134) which the blood on his t-shirt is that of a hog, permits a different result and the beginning of foreclosure by the oppressed and silenced.
This obviously is the beginning of liberation, and self-discovery. The characters are no longer bound by hatred, their skin tone and ethnic background however jubilantly look towards a brighter tomorrow as they move from being victims to victors. The racial undertone in Shakespeare’s Othello is rather apparent especially in the very first Act. Othello is first introduced through referrals to his skin color, anatomical functions, and his inability to the other Europeans.
Shakespeare distinguishes Othello from the white Europeans by calling him a “black ram” and “thicklips” and “the Moor,” all of which separate him from greater society, which was caucasian. Nevertheless, unlike Scott’s An Echo in The Bone, the issue of race in Othello as a main style is debatable. Othello is a disaster written by William Shakespeare around 1603. The play tells the story of a powerful general of the Venetian army, Othello, whose life and marriage are destroyed by a conniving, sly, and jealous soldier, Iago.
Othello is potentially the most popular literary exploration of the warping powers of jealousy and suspicion. At the very same time, it’s amongst the earliest literary works handling race and bigotry. Othello, undeniably brave even if ultimately flawed, is the most prominent black protagonist in early Western literature. Othello deals with consistent bigotry from other characters, specifically when he marries Desdemona, a privileged white female whose dad disapproves of the union.
The play’s efficiency history has been marked by bigotry. To see a real black man and a white woman kiss onstage was seen as so unacceptable to many audiences that even in early twentieth century America, Othello needed to be played by a white man in blackface. When Paul Robeson, a black American and the kid of a slave, played Othello on Broadway in the 1940s, the performances amazed a still segregated nation. Othello’s treatment of race and sexuality makes its among Shakespeare’s the majority of pertinent and controversial plays.
For some, the play’s representation of a black man who weds and after that brutally murders a white woman in a fit of rage and jealousy makes Othello a racist play. For these critics, Shakespeare appears to endorse a xenophobic (anti-foreigner) attitude that was pretty common throughout England and other parts of Europe. After all, they state, the play has plenty of characters that express a blatant hatred of black males and foreigners, and these characters frequently refer to Othello as “thick-lips,” the “devil,” and the “old black ram” who apparently contaminates his white other half with his hyper-sexuality.
Not only that, but Othello enacts a racist stereotype (that says black men are “savage”) when he strangles his other half on her bed. Yet, for other critics, neither the action in the play nor the characters’ racist mindsets makes the play (or Shakespeare) racist. For some, Othello is a play that portrays racism in such a way that provokes the audience into rethinking its concepts and mindsets about race. Lots of critics argue that Shakespeare’s play asks one to think about the disaster of how Othello absorbs and internalizes the dominant racist mindsets that surround him.
One argues in favour of this point of view also. The idea is that Othello is a research study of what happens when a society informs a man over and over and over again that he is violent, savage, polluting, and to be feared. When it comes to Othello, the character starts to believe its all true and acts out a racist stereotype– that of a “savage” killer. Early17th-century English mindsets toward non-Europeans were mainly formed by the government’s diplomatic policies and, to a lesser level, by exotic stories brought back by travelers overseas.
The term “moor” was derived from the name of the nation Mauritania but was utilized to refer to North Africans, West Africans or, much more loosely, for non-whites or Muslims of any origin. North and West Africans living in Elizabethan England were often singled out for their unusual gown, behavior and custom-mades and were frequently described as “devils” or “villains.” Moors were commonly stereotyped as sexually overactive, susceptible to jealousy and usually wicked, hence, Shakespeare’s use of negative names to describe Othello in Act 1.
The public associated “blackness” with moral corruption, pointing out examples from Christian theology to support the view that brightness was the indication of pureness, just as blackness suggested sin. This is finest portrayed where Brabantio suggests that Othello bewitched his child. It was again portrayed where the Duke of Venice informs Brabantio that his child is safe if Othello is her husband. The duke states:” and, worthy signior,? If virtue no pleased charm lack, your son-in-law is far more reasonable than black”. Some would argue that this is evidence of bigotry nevertheless this too is rather arguable.
It might likewise be argued that the duke spoke in referral to Othello’s character and not his complexion seeing that in the Elizabethan society, those considered to be “black” described even those whose skin was somewhat different from those of a lighter skin tone. Unlike An Echo in the Bone, Blacks were not typically connected with slavery at that time, considering that the slave trade would not be completely developed until the late 17th century. Furthermore another distinction between Scott’s work and Shakespeare’s drama is that the animosity between the characters as one will find is far from skin deep.
In fact, Iago’s hatred towards Othello is largely influenced by jealousy. After serving along with Othello for so long Iago thought that rather of promoting Cassio, Othello would have considered him worthwhile of being his lieutenant. Nevertheless this was not so, Iago reveals to Roderigo that: “I follow him to serve my time upon him” (Othello, 2) Unbeknown to Othello, Iago means to turn his love ones against him or even worse, as one will discover, he means to turn Othello into the savage barbarian he was unjustly referred to in the opening scenes.
Lastly, while racism is certainly demonstrated in Othello, this does not make it a racist play as it has nothing to do with the terrible results in the production. On the contrary, Shakespeare has actually shown Othello as a great black guy who was driven to do awful things by a white male. In the Elizabethan times, it was believed that the errors in the character were shown in the outer look however Shakespeare’s point opposes this ideology instead he substantiates that appearance is not an indicator of the person below the skin.
Like they say, “don’t judge the book by its colour”. In conclusion, both plays, An Echo in the Bone and Othello reveal proof of racism. However while racism is a central style in Scott’s work, the racism displayed in Othello does not influence the result of the play. In addition while both authors consist of black characters manipulated by a white society, just one allows the characters to overcome the injury triggered by slavery and racism while the other ends in tragedy.