Animal Farm: Its Parallels to European History
Animal Farm is not simply a novel for entertainment; it is a historical satire: a satire on European History. George Orwell was interested in the spread of communism throughout Europe and the world and the oppression that took place under it. He hoped to bring awareness to the issue, and did so with his novel, Animal Farm. He composed Animal Farm to parallel the events in European history concerning the Bolshevik Revolution and the communists’ rise to power. He utilized a wide variety of characters, scenes, and objects in the unique to represent crucial individuals, places, and events that were pivotal to the history of the time.
In Animal Farm, Mr. Jones represents the last Czar of Russia, Czar Nicholas II (Sparknotes). Mr. Jones repeatedly abuses and mistreates his animals, through acts of whippings, lack of sufficient food, and extreme labor (Orwell). After a night in which he forgets to feed his animals, the animals break into food supply and begin to feed themselves. Jones and his guys try to stop the animals but are gone after off and away from the farm (Orwell). Shortly before the animals revolt, Mr. Jones and his men go “rabbitting” in which they attempt to rid the farm of rabbits that aredestroying the crops.
Mr. Jones and his men’s’ attempt at “rabbitting” parallels Czar Nicholas II’s effort to keep order in Russia prior to the Bolshevik Transformation, as the bunnies of the farm represent the lower social classes of Russia, who begin to start waves of violence throughout the cities before the transformation (Newspeak). The animal’s revolt versus Mr. Jones parallels the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, in which the people of Russia ousted Czar Nicholas II after years of injustice and hardship, paralleling the absence of food and harsh penalties for the animals.
The animals of Animal Farm represent individuals of Russia, however private pigs mirror crucial people in the history of Russia. In the beginning, the pigs represent the Intelligentsia, the smartest people in Russia to lead the nation in the start of the Bolshevik revolution, since the pigs are the most intelligent animals on the farm after the revolt and they lead the farm right after the revolt. Later on the pigs are voted to be the leaders due to their smarts, an accurate parallel to the Intelligentsia (Sparknotes). Old Major is an elderly pig on the farm that sees a much better future for the animals of the farm.
He sees a farm for animals to be equal and lead tranquil lives, without the interference of people; he calls it Animalism. He specifies that the only way for the animals to accomplish this, is through a revolution (Orwell). Old Major is a representation of Karl Marx, the creator of Socialism. Karl Marx’s socialism intended to create a much better world for its followers. Marx’s fans were employees, as he believed they ought to rule individuals. He believed the only method to achieve this was through a transformation of some kind. Both Karl Marx’s socialism and Old Major’s Animalism wished to develop a much better world for its fans.
They both thought the only method to achieve their objectives was through a revolution, and they both thought the employees must rule (workers in Animalism being the animals) (Sparknotes). Another pig that represents a popular historic: Napoleon is the pig that is successful to continue Old Major’s Animalism. He, initially, maintains all of Old Major’s guidelines about Animalism, but as the story proceeds, he begins to abuse his power by assuming all management, removing all opposition and then setting up worry in all the animals through his force of dogs, who will attack anybody that does not follow his rules.
He twists Old Major’s rules to fit his requirements, such as when he twists the rule of no animals were to consume alcohol, to no animals were to alcohol in excess (Orwell). These events directly parallel the Russian leader, Joseph Stalin. Like Napoleon’s twist of Animalism, Stalin twisted Socialism into his own, to create communism, having complete control of Russia. Napoleon’s watchdog represent Stalin’s KGB, who were a secret police force that got rid of all of Stalin’s opposition through terror and cruelty (Lamant). Napoleon, later in the unique, begins to build a windmill to increase production of the crops.
This strategy parallels Stalin’s Five Year Plan to rejuvenate Russia’s market and agriculture. Together with Napoleon in the start of the novel, Snowball is a pig that shares leadership over Animal Farm. He leads the animals in the battle of Cowshed versus neighboring farmers, earning him respect and honor. He stresses a significance on industry for the farm, rather than Napoleon’s tension of farming. This dispute leads to a bitter fight over the building of a windmill, which leads to Napoleon having his pets go after Snowball off of the farm. Snowball is a representation of Leon Trotsky.
After Lenin’s death, Russia’s power was asserted to two individuals, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, a parallel to Snowball’s and Napoleon’s share of power in the beginning. Trotsky was preferred with the people after he led the Red Army to victory versus Western Capitalist Country. This is a parallel to Snowball’s victory at the battle of Cowshed (Rodden 16). Trotsky envisioned Russia under a commercial economy, while Stalin envisioned farming (Rodden 16). The two became enemies and in 1927, and Stalin defeated Trotsky as the Communist Party Congress election.
He persuaded followers to chew out Trotsky, who was attempting a speech, to prevent Trotsky from presenting it. This occasion represents Napoleon’s and Snowball’s arguments at conference on how to move on. A disagreement resulting in Napoleon peeing on Snowball’s dragged out plans for a windmill. Stalin had Trotsky flee from Russia when he had secret police KGB agents track him down and eliminate him in Mexico City in 1940. The event mirrors to the banishment of Snowball off the farm by Napoleon’s guard dogs. Lastly, the last pig, Squealer promotes Napoleon and his concepts.
He performs a lot of Napoleon’s plans, such as altering and manipulating the commandments (Lamant). He is a passionate propagandist for Napoleon (Sparknotes). Squealer very much represents the propagandists of Stalin’s time who supported and promoted him, but he could be a direct to parallel to the communist newspaper Prawda, which highly promoted Stalin (Sparknotes). Now unlike the pigs, the horses aren’t as smart, but they do have their parallels. Boxer and Clover represent the perfect workers of Russia. They are tough working, loyal, and quickly manipulated (Sparknotes).
Boxer is repeatedly heard saying, “I will work harder,” an ideal working habit valued by Napoleon and the Communist powers in Russia. Like the workers in Russia, Fighter is taken advantage of and eventually eliminated for money. The workers are worked for no cash and are treated without any respect (Sparknotes). Mollie, a horse, is the reverse of Boxer and Clover, she represents the Bourgeoisie. Mollie enjoys wearing ribbons and eating sugar cubes offered to her by people. She eventually leaves the farm after another farmer offers her sugar cubes to eat.
The Bourgeoisie were the extreme upper class of Russia prior to the Bolshevik revolution. After the Bolsheviks took power, they left the country in order to keep their luxuries, represented by the ribbons and sugar cubes. Moses, the raven, is a parallel to the Eastern Orthodox Church (Rodden 17). Throughout the novel, Moses preaches about Sugarcandy Mountain, an afterlife for animals to go to when they pass away. He does this much to the annoyance of Napoleon, who forces him to get away, however is later enabled to return. The Orthodox Church is very first disallowed in Russia after Stalin took power.
He wanted to get rid of any opposition to workers passion for work, however the church is enabled back after public pressure. During Mr. Jones reign, he fed Moses beer-soaked bread, a representation of the Czar’s bribery of the Orthodox Church (Rodden 17). Another kind of bird, the hens of the farm represent peasant farmers in Ukraine at the time of the Transformation (Newspeak). Napoleon required that the hens surrender their eggs for the farm; the hens didn’t feel it necessary and smashed their eggs in demonstration. So in retaliation, Napoleon starved them into submission.
The event mirrors Stalin’s hunger of Ukrainian farmers as penalty for their slaughtering of livestock in demonstration of their required entry into a collective, a farm regulated by the federal government (Newspeak). The story in Animal Farm consists of lots of men that live outside of the farm in which the story occurs. These males are a direct parallel to substantial people in European history. Mr. Frederick is among these men. He is a neighboring farmer who forms a trade contract with Napoleon, in which he accepts trade items of his farm in return for items from Animal Farm. Nevertheless later on in the unique, Mr.
Frederick betrays Animal Farm, and is seen starving his cows to death (Sparknotes). Mr. Frederick in the unique represents Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact with Stalin that prohibited neither Germany nor Russia from attacking the other nation, however Hitler betrayed Stalin and invaded Russia in 1941 (Newspeak). This event parallels Mr. Frederick’s early peaceful relationship with Animal Farm and then his betrayal to it. The starving of his cows represents the Holocaust of the Jews, as the cows were inhumanely exterminated for no purposeful factor, like the Jews had actually been under Hitler’s command (Newspeak).
Mr. Whymper is another man who is a parallel to individuals in history; He is a parallel to capitalists who did organisation in Russia during the Bolshevik Transformation (Newspeak). In the novel, Whymper is worked with to represent Animal Farm in human society, including produce markets. The animals of the farm are surprised at first to hear the farm doing business with a human, as they are perceived as enemies. Mr. Whymper parallels the capitalists in Russia since individuals of Russia were also horrified to discover the country doing trade with what were their viewed enemies, the capitalists (Sparknotes).
The farmhouse Mr. Jones resided in represents the Kremlin (Animal Farm 3). In the book after the revolution, the animals wanted to protect the house as a museum to show how luxurious the humans led their lives instead of animals. Nevertheless as Napoleon got power he started to live in your house, just as Stalin started to reside in the Kremlin even after it was made into a museum to demonstrate how the Czar’s lived in opulence (Sparknotes). After and during the animals’ transformation, the animals produce two things to reveal their pride in and influence the transformation: a flag and a song called “Beasts of England. The flag the animals’ develop was designed to represent the animals and their accomplishment. The flag illustrates a white hoof and horn, 2 signs of working animals on the farm, on a green background. It represents the animals’ unity and pride in being ruled by themselves, not human beings. The flag mirrors the Soviet flag of the time which portrayed a hammer and sickle, 2 symbols of the working class in Russia, on a red background. The Russian flag depicted the hammer and sickle to reveal that the former stylish Czars weren’t judgment, however the every day working male.
Both flags represent a common bond directed toward completion of previous managements that abused their employees. “Monsters of England” is the tune produced by Old Major to inspire the animals to start a revolution against human leadership. It is notable that “Monsters of England” parallels the Russian Socialist Anthem “The Internationale” (The Internationale). A Wikipedia post states, “The very first line (In “Monsters of England”), ‘Monsters of England, monsters of Ireland’, reveals the worldwide nature of ‘animalism’, just as “The Internationale” consisted of the line ‘unifies the human race’.
It mentions a future paradise devoid of human control, and a time of plenty. In “The Internationale” this is … pointed out (‘And offer to all a better lot’)” (Beasts of England). In the beginning, Napoleon develops a concept he calls Animalism. He envisions a world without human contact to animals; he views Animalism as the very best method for animals to live. Animalism consists of guidelines such as no owners, no rich or bad, employees have a great life, all animals are equal to all other animals, and everybody owns the farm equally. Animalism is a parallel to Communism in Russia.
Communism worries no owners, no abundant or bad, all individuals are equal, federal government owns everything, and individuals own the federal government (Lamont). Lots of occasions in Animal Farm parallel considerable events in Russian History. The revolt of the animals against Mr. Jones in the start of the book is one of these parallels as it is a representation of the Bolshevik Transformation in 1917. The animals in the Animal Farm had not been fed in a day and a half after Mr. Jones had actually arrived home at Manor Farm (later changed to Animal Farm) drunk and incapable of feeding his livestock.
After dealing with their hunger for so long the animals get into the feeding stock, and started to feed themselves. Mr. Jones and his men attempted to limit them, however the animals broke totally free and charged all of the guys off of the farm, passing the farm over to the animals (Gradesaver). The Bolshevik Transformation of 1917 start just like the animals’ transformation. The farmers of Russia had been moving into the major cities after crop failure and inflation had triggered them to go hungry and penniless. They moved into the cities searching for jobs, however discovered simply the exact same problem? unger. The issue finally escalated into a riot on February 23, 1927 when individuals started to yell in the streets “We desire bread! Down with autocracy! …” 160,000 soldiers under the Czar had actually been deployed to put down the riot, but couldn’t reduce it. The riot evolved into a transformation as the entire nation was eventually rioting, the Czar was required from rule, and individuals were no longer under his rule (Dunn 51). The poor, starving farmers represent the animals in Animal Farm that required there way into the food supply.
The farmers revolt in history, parallels the animals revolt because they both were stimulated by absence of food, and they both fell the rulers that lorded over them. Another significant occasion in history that is paralleled in Animal Farm is the backlash of support towards the spread of communism. In the book, farmers attack Animal Farm (referred to as the Battle of Cowshed) in hopes of stopping the revolts on their farms that spurred from the revolt of Animal Farm. The revolts on their farms were started by the farms’ animals after they heard about Animal Farm’s revolt from the pigeons sent out by Snowball.
The spread of Animalism, by Snowball, is the direct cause of these revolts that ultimately trigger the Fight of Cowshed. In Europe many countries handled revolts for communism by “removing” communists after Leon Trotsky led a global movement in assistance of communism. They either killed or banished these individuals, similar to what the farmers tried to do to animals and Animal Farm (Sparknotes). The next events paralleled in Animal Farm are the purge trials from the late 1930’s in which old Bolsheviks were brought forth before trial, found guilty of treason, and killed.
All of the evidence in the trials had been made by the secret authorities and all confessions were made under extensive pressure of torture. These trials successfully removed all challengers and critics of Stalin (Purge Trials). In the book, animals are come up with to trial in front of Napoleon and his guard dogs. Napoleon forces them to inform incorrect stories of assisting out Napoleon’s enemy, Snowball, and then has his watchdog rip out their throats (Sparknotes). The occasions parallel each other because they both have leaders who require challengers and/or critics to testify to incorrect confessions to have them killed and get rid of any challengers.
Lastly the last event to be paralleled in Animal Farm is the Tehran Conference in 1943. The Tehran conference is a meeting of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Tehran, Iran. The conference was held to enhance bonds between the three allied countries in The second world war, the United States, Great Britain, and the U. S. S. R. In the novel, the Tehran Conference is mirrored by a card game in between Napoleon, Mr. Pilkington, and other farmers. The point of the card game is to reveal a hand of relationship Animal Farm is providing to the farmers, and to show how efficient Animal Farm has actually ended up being.
Both the Tehran Conference and the card game are planned to much better promote relations between the members of each group (Tehran Conference). Animal Farm was composed to bring attention to the Bolshevik Transformation and the communist’s rise to power. The novel does this through making use of parallels and representations of historical locations, peoples, and items into characters or objects in the novel. Such examples being Mr. Jones being a parallel to Czar Nicholas II due to his severe treatment of his assistants, and the ultimate ousting of him by the exact same underlings, a strong parallel to Czar Nicholas II.
Or Manor Farm being a representation of Russia under the Czar, as the farm is just referred to as Manor Farm when Mr. Jones is the leader of it, given that Mr. Jones is a representation of Czar Nicholas II. It then turns into a representation of the Soviet Union after Napoleon takes over and transforms the farm into Animal Farm. It is these examples and numerous others that makes Animal Farm a historic satire on European history. Works Pointed Out Animal Farm. 1 Dec 2006 Newspeak Dictionary. 10 Jan. 2006. Animal Farm. Sparknotes. 7 Dec. 2006 Beasts of England. Wikipedia. 22 Feb. 007 Dunn, John. The Russian Revolution. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1994. Kuhn, Rick. 20 Apr. 2006 The Internationale. 22 Feb. 2007 < Lamant, George. Animal Farm? Contrast of Characters to the Russian Transformation. 7 Dec. Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York City: Penguin Books Ltd., 1996. "Purge Trials." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Brittanica Concise Encyclopedia. 22 Feb. 2007 Rodden, John. Understanding Animal Farm. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999. Tehran Conference. Infoplease. 22 Feb. 2007