Animal Farm: Communism Through the Eyes of George Orwell
Animal Farm: Communism Through The Eyes of George Orwell Throughout history, authors have actually blogged about several subjects based on their individual experiences. George Orwell was the pen name of Eric Blair. He is among the most popular political satirists of the twentieth century. He was born in Bengal, India in 1903 to an English Civil Servant and passed away in 1950. He participated in Eton from 1917 to 1921, and served with the Indian Imperial Cops in Burma from 1922 to 1927 before relocating to Europe.
2 of his most well-known books, Animal Farm, composed in 1946, and Nineteen Eighty-Four, composed in 1949, were discussed the political and social environment surrounding his life. “The driving force behind his two satires is an intense revulsion against totalitarianism, combined with an even stronger revulsion against its protectors among left-wing intellectuals. “1 In most of George Orwell? books and essays, there is a strong autobiographical aspect due to the reality that he invested many years living with Communists in northern Terrific Britain (a little number of individuals started to follow Communism in northern Excellent Britain when it started in Russia). George Orwell? s composing was impacted considerably by his personal beliefs about Socialism, Communism, Fascism, and Totalitarianism, and by the revolts, wars, and transformations going on in Europe and Russia at the time of his writings. George Orwell was a Socialist2 himself, and he abhored Russian Communism3, and what it stood for.
Orwell reveals this hatred towards Communist Russia in a letter he composed to Victor Gollancz stating, “For quite fifteen years I have related to that routine with plain horror. “4 Orwell composed this letter in 1947, 10 years after revealing his dislike of Communism. However, he had thought a good deal about Communism and what he disliked about if for a long time before he revealed it to the general public. Orwell “did not expect anything excellent from the Communist”5 and for that reason Communism personally did not impact him, but “He was worried about it (Communism) only due to the fact that it was a problem for others. “6
In Animal Farm, “an animal myth satirizing Communism,”7 Orwell utilizes stock in England to satirize Russian Communism and its leaders. One animal he uses is a pig named Napoleon, whose equivalent in the Russian Revolution is Joseph Stalin. After Napoleon organizes the farm, he assumes the function of a totalitarian that benefits himself much like Stalin did. Throughout Stalin? s reign, 1929-1953, he used horror to enforce his laws, and enabled no one to oppose his decisions. If someone did oppose him, he would punish him or her harshly. In Animal Farm, Napoleon likewise uses violent force to enforce his laws.
Napoleon revealed this force when he “hired them to admit their crimes … When they had completed their confession, the pets without delay tore their throats out, and in a horrible voice Napoleon demanded whether any other animal had anything to confess. “8 This violent force that Joseph Stalin utilized to enforce his laws is among the primary factors that Orwell disagreed with the main concepts behind Communism and its leaders. Another contrast that Orwell makes in between Napoleon and Stalin is the changing of history to benefit themselves. In Animal Farm, Napoleon typically changes history to make himself look much better.
Despite the fact that Snowball, the other pig that was in charge with Napoleon, was the true hero in the “Battle of the Cowshed,”9 Napoleon makes himself out to be the hero. Squealer, among Napoleon? s top pigs in command, says,”Do you not remember how, simply at the moment when Jones and his males had gotten in the lawn, Snowball all of a sudden turned and left … that it was simply at that minute when panic was spreading and all seemed lost, that Comrade Napoleon sprang forward with a cry of? Death to Mankind!? “10 Just as Squealer retold the occasion to Napoleon? benefit, the same thing can be stated about Stalin. After he “ended up being totalitarian of the Soviet Union, he had actually history books rewritten to say that he had actually led the revolution with Lenin. “11 This nevertheless is not the reality. In truth, it was Leon Trotsky who led the revolution with Lenin. This is simply one of the lots of contrasts that Orwell makes in between Stalin and Napoleon. Stalin was what Orwell and individuals who protested Communism feared the most; a ruler who rules just for his own power. Orwell utilizes another pig named Snowball to represent the part that Lenin played in the Russian Transformation.
Lenin was the founder of the Communist Celebration in Russia and set up the first Communist dictatorship on the planet. “Lenin? s objectives were the destruction of capitalism (privately owned and managed organisation) and the creation of an egalitarian society (a society without groups of rich or bad individuals). “12 These were the basic goals of Snowball likewise. Lenin and Snowball shared one major goal in typical which was to industrialize the societies that they managed and lived in. Right prior to Lenin passed away, he “introduced a new economic policy and intended to improve commercial abilities and education”. 3 In contrast, Snowball was the mastermind behind the windmill in Animal Farm. The function of the windmill that Snowball was creating was to “do their work for them while they grazed at their ease in the fields or improved their minds with reading and discussion. “14 As one might see these strategies are practically similar. Both call for a more productive working environment in which the people of the working class will likewise get understanding. In Animal Farm, Karl Marx, the father of Communism is represented by a Middle White boar called Old Major.
On the first page of Animal Farm it is announced that Old Significant “had an odd dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals. “15 His dream predicts their future in the farm once “Man” is thrown out. He states, “Man is the only real opponent we have. Eliminate Man from the scene, and the origin of cravings and overwork is eliminated for ever. “16 Marx predicted in his Manifesto of the Communist Party which he wrote with his friend Friedrich Engels, “that the ruling middle class will be toppled by the working class. “17 Marx and Old Major are almost identical.
They both felt that the working class was being made use of and that eventually, they would increase against middle gentility. “The outcome of this revolution, according to Marx and Engles, will be a classless society in which the chief means of production are publicly owned. “18 Marx and Old Major were both right in their predictions. Nevertheless, they might not visualize the issues that Communism would create. Orwell saw this issue take place and “From about 1935 he was persuaded that Russia had taken the incorrect path and had actually ended up being a tyranny. “19
The environment surrounding Orwell led him to write another book about the results that Communism has on a society, this book is Nineteen Eighty-Four. In this popular political satire Orwell presents to the reader a character named Winston Smith. This character that Orwell produced “is indicated to be very much like us20”. Orwell utilizes the name Winston Smith to create one to the most significant ironies in the novel. Winston was the given names of among the best and most effective statesman of this century, Winston Churchill. On the other hand, Smith is among the most common surnames in the English language.
Orwell did this to show that although Winston remains in The Party21 he has no power or authority that makes him a regular man, similar to the reader. This is also a reference to Winston Churchill who was quite versus Russian Communism. Winston, in Nineteen Eighty-Four, is conspiring against the party which represents a dictatorship comparable to Russian Communism. He ends up being a martyr, and in the end, sacrifices his life for something in which he thinks in. Orwell did not compose Nineteen Eighty-Four as a forecast as many people think.
He composed it as an alert about what can happen if Communism takes over. Orwell portrayed Winston as a puppet in attempting to get across his point that Communism need to be stopped. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, the character Big Sibling is a sign of The Celebration? s supremacy over Oceania, post war England in Nineteen Eighty-Four. Huge Sibling in truth did not exist. He is simply a distortion of truth produced by The Celebration to strike fear into the minds of the citizens. Big Sibling was supposed to make everybody seem like they were always being watched and might never ever get away no matter how hard they attempted.
Orwell made no distinct recommendation to whom Big Brother was expected to symbolize in Russian Communism, however his physical description is one “of a guy of about forty-five, with a heavy black mustache and ruggedly handsome features. “22 This might be a recommendation to Stalin or to a combination of totalitarians, however no matter how one takes a look at it this is an example of common propaganda used by dictatorships to help their cause, themselves. Everyone has probably heard the stating “Huge Brother is watching you”, and in today? s society this is gradually becoming a reality.
In San Francisco authorities helicopters are hovering low over the city and producing “an impression that Big Sibling is hovering over you”. 23 In another California city cops cams have been set up on every street corner to watch for criminal offense, but some individuals see it as an invasion of personal privacy. Orwell also saw this as an intrusion of privacy and that is why he wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four. In Nineteen Eighty-Four if somebody is to defy The Celebration he will just be erased. This was a reality in Russia even before the Communists entered control of the federal government. Under the czars, the Russian secret police had often arrested evolutionists and sent them into exile without trial. Stalin set up an authorities system that was much more horrible. 24 Stalin was a totalitarian to the fullest degree. “In 1935, Stalin started a purge (elimination) of most of the old Bolsheviks associated with Lenin. Throughout the next couple of years, he eliminated anybody who might have threatened his power. “25 By the end of his purge there was nobody delegated break what he said, and he had actually accomplished his main objective, total control of the U. S. S. R. This is the very same objective as Huge Brother, actually what he symbolized considering that he doesn? t exist. The Party? Idea Police in Orwell? s unique, which represent the Czar? s Secret Authorities and Stalin? s Cops integrated, will simply remove or get rid of individuals if they pose a threat to them or to their cause. It is easy to see how the political and social environment of the time affected George Orwell? s writings. This appears in Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, where he reveals his dislike of Communism. As the Russian Communists grew more powerful Orwell? s do not like for them grew similarly as strong. His works consisted of cautions to the people of England and the world not to be misdirected by Communism.
These two books were among the very first to show the real cruelty of the Communist party and assisted to open the eyes of the American individuals to the risks of Communism, that “all-pervasive and controlling state, and to rulers who want to keep power as much for its sake when it comes to their own advantage. “26 END NOTES 1-Miriam Gross, The World of George Orwell (New York City, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971) pg. 136 2-socialism-a theory or system of Social company by which the major ways of production and distribution are owned, handled, or managed by the government, associations of workers, or by the community as an entire -communism-a system in which most or all property is owned by the state and is expected to be shared by all. Communism comes from a philosophy based on the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles, who together composed the Manifesto of the Communist Party 4-Miriam Gross, The World of George Orwell (New York City, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971) pg. 120 5-Richard J. Voorhees, The Paradox of George Orwell (New York City, NY: Purdue Research Structure, 1961) pg. 22 6-Miriam Gross, The World of George Orwell (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971) pg. 119 7-Frank W. Wadsworth, “Orwell, George,” World Book Encyclopedia, 1988 ed., pg. 866 -George Orwell, Animal Farm (New York City, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanavich, Inc.,1946) pg. 82-83 9-The Battle of the Cowshed was a fight that took place in between the Animals of Animal Farm and the human beings who were attacking. This battle represents the intrusion of German forces into the western part of the newly formed U. S. S. R. 10-George Orwell, Animal Farm (New York City, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanavich, Inc.,1946) pg. 80 11-“Stalin, Joseph,” World Book Encyclopedia, 1988 ed., pg. 826 12-“Lenin, V. I.,” World Book Encyclopedia, 1988 ed., pg. 191 13-Ibid 14-George Orwell, Animal Farm (New York City, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanavich, Inc. 1946) pg. 54 15-Ibid, pg. 15 16-Ibid, pg. 19 17-Alfred G. Meyer, “Marx, Karl,” World Book Encyclopedia, 1988 ed., pg. 237 18-Ibid 19-Miriam Gross, The World of George Orwell (New York City, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971) pg. 136 20-The Celebration represents the Communist party in Russia. It has a total dictatorship over Oceania, post war England in the novel. They utilize the same violent force that the Communist used to enforce their laws, and practically everything else is the same as the Communist celebration. 21-Gilbert Borman, Cliffs Notes of Orwell? s Nineteen Eighty-Four (Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes Inc.,1984) pg. 23 2-George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (New York City, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanaich, Inc., 1949) pg. 5 23-Edward W. Lempinen, “S. F. Authorities Copters? Turbulent Return,” San Francisco Chronicle 22 March 1996, sec A:1 & & A:15 24-“Stalin, Joseph,” World Book Encyclopedia, 1988 ed., pg. 827 25-Ibid 26-Peter Stansky, On Nineteen Eighty-Four (San Francisco, California: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1983) pg. 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, David L. and Thompson, Frank H. Cliffs Notes on Orwell? s Animal Farm. Lincoln Nebraska: Cliffs Notes Inc., 1981 Borman, Gilbert. Cliffs Notes on Orwell? s Nineteen Eighty-Four. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes Inc. 1984 Crick, Bernard. George Orwell The First Complete Biography. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Business, 1980 Gross, Miriam. The World of George Orwell. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971 Lempinen, Edward W. “S. F. Authorities Copters? Rough Return” San Francisco Chronicle 22 March 1996, sec A:1 & & A:15 Lewis, C. S. Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company,1979 Meyer, Alfred G. “Marx, Karl.” World Book Encyclopedia. 1988 ed. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1949 Orwell, George. Animal Farm.
New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1946 Stansky, Peter and Abraham, William. Orwell: The Transformation. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1979 Stansky, Peter. On Nineteen Eighty-Four. San Francisco, California: W. H. Freeman and Business, 1983 Wadsworth, Frank W. “Orwell, George” World Book Encyclopedia. 1988 ed. Woodcock, George. The Crystal Spirit a study of George Orwell. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company,1966 Voorhees, Richard J. The Paradox of George Orwell. New York, NY: Purdue Research Foundation,1961 “Stalin, Joseph.” World Book Encyclopedia. 1988 ed. “Lenin, V. I.” World Book Encyclopedia. 1988 ed.