Animal Farm and a Tale of 2 Cities: Social Criticism
Many authors get their motivation for writing their literature from outside sources. The concept for a story might originate from household, individual experiences, history, or perhaps their own creativity. For authors that select to compose a book based upon historical occasions, the motivation may originate from their particular perspective on the event that they wish to dramatize. George Orwell and Charles Dickens composed Animal Farm and A Tale of Two Cities, respectively, to express their disillusionment with society and humanity.
Animal Farm, composed in 1944, is a book that tells the animal myth of a farm in which the stock revolt against their human masters. It is an example of social criticism in literature in which Orwell spoofed the occasions in Russia after the Bolshevik Transformation. He anthropomorphises the animals, and points each one to an equivalent in Russian history. A Tale of Two Cities likewise represents this type of literature. Besides the main theme of love, is another widespread style, that of a revolution spoiled. He reveals us that, regrettably, humanity causes us to be vengeful and, for some of us, extremely enthusiastic.
Both these books are comparable because both explain how, even with the very best of intentions, our aspirations get the very best of us. Both authors also demonstrate that violence and the Machiavellian mindset of “the ends justifying the ways” are terrible. < George Orwell wrote Animal Farm, "… to challenge the Soviet system by revealing its inhumanity and its back-sliding from suitables [he] valued … "(Gardner, 106) Orwell noted that" there exists in England nearly no literature of disillusionment with the Soviet Union.' Instead, that country is viewed either with ignorant displeasure' or with uncritical admiration. "(Gardner, 96) The basic synopsis is this: Old Major, an old boar in Manor Farm, informs the other animals of his dream of "animalism":" … Just eliminate Guy, and the produce of our labour would be our own. Almost over night we would become rich and free. '" (Orwell, 10) The other animals take this utopian idea to heart, and one day really do revolt and drive the people out. 2 pigs become leaders: Napoleon and Snowball. They continuously argued, but one day, due to a distinction over plans to develop a windmill, Napoleon banished Snowball.
Practically instantly, Napoleon developed a totalitarian government. Quickly, the pigs began to get special favours, till finally, they were identical from human beings to the other animals. Instantly the reader can start to draw parallels between the book’s characters and the federal government in 1917-44 Russia. For instance, Old Major, who developed the concept of “animalism,” is viewed as representing Karl Marx, the developer of communism. Snowball represents Trotsky, a Russian leader after the transformation. He was driven out by Napoleon, who represents Stalin, the most effective figure in the nation.
Napoleon then proceeded to get rid of the freedoms of the animals, and established a dictatorship, under the public veil of “animalism.” Pigs represent the gentility since of their stereotype: dirty animals with pressing cravings. Boxer, the overworked, incredibly strong, dumb horse represents the typical employee in Russia. The two surrounding farms represent 2 of the countries on the worldwide phase with Russia at the time, Germany and England. < Orwell starts his book by slamming the capitalists and ruling elite, who are represented in Animal Farm by Mr. Jones, the farmer.
He is revealed as an irresponsible drunk, who continuously starved his animals. “His character is already developed as self-indulgent and unconcerned.” (King, 8) Orwell reveals us how, “if just animals became aware of their strength, we must have no power over them, which guys make use of animals in similar method as the abundant exploit the proletariat. “(Gardner, 97) What was established in Russia after the Bolshevik Transformation was not true communism (“animalism”), which Orwell approved of, where the people owned all the factories and land. Rather, “state communism” was developed, where a main federal government owned them.
Orwell thought that such a political system, “state communism,” was open to exploitation by its leaders. Napoleon, after gaining complete control, did anything he wished– reserved the very best for the pigs, and dealt with the animals cruelly. The animals could not do anything, unless they again realized their strength in numbers versus their own kind. Regrettably, they were too foolish to realize this and accepted the “status quo.” It began when the milk and apples were appropriated to the pigs, and continued to when the pigs could drink and sleep on beds, till finally the pigs were the “human masters” to the rest of the animals.
Orwell criticized Germany, representing it as Pinchfield Farm, which betrayed Animal Farm by spending for lumber with counterfeit money. In real life, this represents the Soviet-Germany non-aggression pact during World War II which Germany ultimately broke. Ultimately, towards the end of the story, the term, “outright power corrupts absolutely,” is proven, as the pigs, who retained all the opportunities on their own, have developed into a different caste from the other animals. Orwell’s implication is that “genuine” communism can not exist in the nations which claim to be communist.
The ruling class– political leaders– own everything and ironically are therefore in overall control. < A Tale of 2 Cities is a love story which chronicles the lives of Charles Darnay, a Frenchman who renounced his link with the upper class, and Sydney Carton, a wastrel who lived in England. Both these characters fall in love with Lucie Manette, the daughter of Dr. Alexandre Manette, unjustly locked up in France for 17 years. Though Lucie weds Darnay, Carton still likes her and in the end, offers his life to conserve Darnay for her.
Dickens, who was fascinated with French history, specifically the Reign of terror, begins by slamming the aristocrats’ treatment of the poor individuals of France. In the seventh chapter of book two, the Monsieur the Marquis had actually unintentionally driven his carriage over a young child, eliminating him. Rather of fretting about the kid’s well-being, the Monsieur’s reaction was to fret about his horses: “One or the other of you is for ever in the method. How do I understand what injury you have done to my horses. (Dickens, 111) He considered their lives inferior and insignificant, as shown when he tossed a gold coin to the kid’s devastated daddy as settlement. The Monsieur the Marquis revealed his real beliefs to his nephew: “Repression is the only enduring viewpoint … fear and slavery, my good friend, will keep the dogs obedient to the whip … “(Dickens, 123) Dickens makes it perfectly obvious that the aristocrats are to meet doom, with symbolic recommendations to fate and death. For example, as the Monsieur the Marquis rides through the nation, a glowing red sundown appeared over him, representing his bloody death.
In the words of the author, “… the sun and the Marquis decreasing together … “(Dickens, 114) Madame Defarge’s knitting is also a symbol of impending doom, as she tape-records the names of all those who are to pass away when the transformation takes place.; br;; br; Dickens likewise reveals his disillusionment with a few of the outcomes of the French Revolution. He thought that individuals did not simply liberate themselves, however also took vengeance towards the aristocracy. This is verified in the discussion between the revolutionaries:” Well, well, however one must stop somewhere. After all, the concern is still where? At extermination,’ said madame. “(Dickens, 341) Madame Defarge embodies this mindset, as she wants to have Charles Darnay killed, not due to the fact that he has actually done something wrong, however due to the fact that he belongs to the Evrmonde household, which killed her relative. Though “Dickens seems almost to regard violence as the one method to bring about social change,”(Lucas,288) he then began to denounce the actions taken by some of the revolutionaries. The citizens let their righteous cause become vengefulness. Even servants and house maids to the aristocrats were beheaded, although they had not really done anything wrong. lt; br;; br; Animal Farm and A Tale of Two Cities were composed to express their authors’ disenchantment with the state of evolution of humanity. They seem to be stating, that even when we start with honourable intents, there will be a few of us who will let their base instincts take control. Orwell, in Animal Farm portrays this nature by parodying events in real history. Offered the best conditions, those events could occur anywhere– a leader ending up being overly ambitious, to the point of harming his people for morepower.
In A Tale of 2 Cities, Dickens analyzes the inner soul, and shares with us how people are driven to the valley of human feelings, where desperation and anger reign, and what could happen afterwards if we let these emotions develop inside. Every person is capable of ending up being a callous, opportunistic resembling Napoleon or Madame Defarge, if placed in the ideal location, at the correct time. Works Cited Coles Editorial Board. Coles Notes: Animal Farm. Toronto: Coles Publishing Company, 1996. < Dickens, Charles. A Tale of 2 Cities.
London: Orion Publishing Group, 1994. < Gardner, Averil. George Orwell. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987. < Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Bibliography. New York: William Morrow & & Company, Ltd., 1988. < King, Martin. Trainees' Guide to Animal Farm. Scotland: Tynron Press, 1989.; br;; li; Lucas, John. The Melancholy Man: A Research Study of Dickens' Books. London: N. P., N. D. < Orwell, George. Animal Farm. London: Penguin Books, 1985. Shelden, Michael. Orwell: The Authorised Biography. London: Mandarin Paperbacks, 1992.